The research team was led by Dr. Qian Xiao from the National Cancer Institute. The researchers studied the results of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, or NHANES. The survey took place from 1999 to 2010 and involved over 27,000 people. During the survey, participants described their coffee consumption over a twenty-four hour period and also had blood tests to measure the level of four important liver enzymes in their blood. The enzymes are strongly linked to liver health.
|Coffee has important health benefits.|
Public domain image
The four enzymes that were measured were:
- alanine transaminase, or ALT (also known as alanine aminotransferase)
- aspartate transaminase, or AST (also known as aspartate aminotransferase)
- alkaline phosphatase, or ALP
- gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, or GGT (also known as gamma-glutamyl transferase)